Motion picture theaters in Minnesota

By the early 1920's most towns in America had a movie theater, and Minnesota was no different.  Movie attendance dramatically increased after 1927 with the arrival of sound films.  A large part of the movie watching experience had to do with the theaters in which the films were shown. Spectacular architecture, innovative technology, and the ability to accommodate large numbers of moviegoers were important aspects of the great movie houses of the 1930s.  By creating architectural fantasies full of “exotic ornament and colors to give an atmosphere where the mind is free to frolic and become receptive to entertainment,” theater designers were on the cutting edge of architecture. Rich extravagant adornment was considered necessary to express the entertainment and fantasy of going to the movies and to make the patrons feel like millionaires, forget their daily urban industrial existence and relax in a land of romance. Motion pictures produced big changes in American life.  Movies provided an escape, or change, from the day-to-day grind of life and they were an important social force.  Liebenberg and Kaplan, Architects (1919-1969), were noted for designing more than 200 motion picture theatres in the Upper Midwest, many of the early ones featuring an art deco style. Nearly all modern theatre design can be traced back to the theatrical traditions established by the Greek-speaking peoples of the Mediterranean starting in the 6th century bce.



eLibrary Minnesota Resources (for Minnesota residents)

1) "At The Picture Show." American History 44.5 (2009): 16. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
2) "First Nickelodeon Film Theater Opens, June 1905." Historic U.S. Events, Gale, 2012. Student Resources in Context, Accessed 21 Feb. 2017.
3) MILLER, LYNN, et al. "A Night At The Drive-In.American Road 12.2 (2014): 26. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
4) "Motion-picture technology." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 8 Jan. 2016. Accessed 17 Jul. 2019.

Teaching Guide: Motion picture theaters in Minnesota

Primary Source Analysis

For each source, ask students to indicate:

  • the author's point of view
  • the author's purpose
  • historical context
  • audience

For inquiry-based learning, ask students to:

  • explain how a source tells its story and/or makes its argument
  • explain the relationships between sources
  • compare and contrast sources in terms of point of view and method
  • support conclusions and interpretations with evidence
  • identify questions for further investigation

Additional Tools

This teaching guide helps instructors use a specific primary source set, Motion picture theaters in Minnesota, in the classroom. It offers discussion questions, classroom activities, and primary source analysis tools. It is intended to spark pedagogical creativity by giving a sample approach to the material. Please feel free to share, reuse, and adapt the resources in this guide for your teaching purposes.

Discussion Questions

How did "machine age" innovations change American life in the Twenties?

In what ways have today's home theaters tried to duplicate the movie-going experience?

Looking at the theater architecture of the images in this set, in what ways do they continue to reflect Greek theatrical tradition?

What architectural similarities and differences do you see in this image set?

What did the movie-going experience offer that watching television at home did not (and vice versa)?

What kinds of expectations did early patrons of movie theaters have?  Has that changed over time?  If so, how?

Which of the theaters in this set feature an art deco style?  What are the distinguishing features of art deco architecture?

What do you think was the reason for the short-lived popularity of drive-in movie theaters?  Was it the rise in the convenience of television or do you think the oil crisis of the 1970's played a role?

Classroom Activities

Using free online design software like SketchUp Make or just simply pen and paper, design your own movie theater.  What kind of architectural elements would you include?  What would the layout look like?  What amenities would you have?

Debate: Movie theater vs. Movies at home  What are the advantages and disadvantages of each experience?